Amaury Flávio Silva


Aprendizes brasileiros de inglês como L2 podem apresentar dificuldades na percepção dos sons da língua inglesa devido a fatores como: tempo de exposição à língua, motivação, qualidade do input recebido durante o aprendizado, idade de início de aprendizado e utilização da língua em atividades significativas. Devido à presença desses fatores, neste artigo, apresentaremos os achados de uma pesquisa a qual avaliou os efeitos de fenômenos extralinguísticos na percepção de 5 brasileiros, aprendizes de inglês como L2. O ponto de partida dessa avaliação foi um questionário que avaliou os perfis dos sujeitos os quais realizaram tarefas de percepção. A pesquisa revelou que os sujeitos que possuíam maior tempo de experiência com a L2, tanto em termos de aprendizado formal da língua quanto em envolvimento em atividades significativas, obtiveram melhor desempenho em relação ao sujeito que possuía menor tempo de aprendizado formal da língua e menor tempo de exposição em atividades significativas.

Texto completo:



ASHER, J. J. AND GARCÍA, R. The Optimal Age to Learn a Foreign Language. The Modern Language Journal, v. 53, p. 334–341, 1969.

AOYAMA, K. et al. Perceived phonetic dissimilarity and L2 speech learning: The case of Japanese /r/ and English /l/ and /r/. Journal of Phonetics, v. 32, n.2, p.233-250, 2004.

BEST, C. T. A direct realist perspective on cross-language speech perception. In: STRANGE, W. (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research, p.171-204. Timonium, MD: York Press, 1995.

______. The emergence of native-language phonological influences in infants: A perceptual assimilation model. In: GOODMAN, C; NUSBAUM, H. (Eds). The development of speech perception, p.167-224. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1994a.

______. Learning to perceive the sound pattern of English. In: ROVEECOLLIER, C. L.; LIPSITT, L. (Eds.). Advances in infancy research, v.8, p.217-304. Hillsdale, NJ: Ablex Publishers, 1994b.

______. Emergence of language-specific constraints in perception of nonnative speech: A window on early phonological development. In: BOYSSON-BARDIES, B. et al. (Eds.). Developmental neurocognition: Speech and face processing in the first year of life, p. 289-304. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1993.

______.; MCROBERTS, G. W.; SITHOLE, N. M. Examination of perceptual reorganization for nonnative speech contrasts: Zulu click discrimination by English-speaking adults and infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, v.14, p.345-360, 1987.

______.; STRANGE, W. Effects of phonological and phonetic factors on cross-language perception of approximants. Journal of Phonetics, v.20, p.305-330, 1992.

______.; TYLER, M., D. Nonnative and second-language speech perception: Commonalities and complementarities. In: MUNRO, M.J.; BOHN, O. S. (Eds.). Second language speech learning: The role of language experience in speech perception and production, p.13-34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2007.

CARROLL, S. E. Putting "input" in its proper place. Second Language Research, v.15, p.337-388, 1999.

CHUN, D. M. Discourse intonation in L2: From theory and research to practice. Philadelphia, John Benjamins, 2002.

FLEGE, J. E. The effect of linguistic experience on Arabs' perception of the English /s/ vs. /z/ contrast. Folia Linguistic, v.18, p.117-138, 1984.

_________.; MACKAY, I. R. A.; MEADOR, D. Native Italian speakers'

perception and production of English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v.106, p.2973-2987, 1999.

_________. Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In: STRANGE, W (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience. Issues in cross-language research, p. 233-276. Timonium, MD: York Press, 1995.

_________. Age of learning and second language speech. In D. Birdsong (Ed.), Second language acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis, p.101-131. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999a.

_________.; LIU, S. The effect of experience on adults’ acquisition of a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, v.23, p.527-552, 2001.

JIA, G. et al. Perception and production of English vowels by Mandarin speakers: Age-related differences vary with amount of L2 exposure. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v.119, p.1118-1130, 2006.

LADEFOGED, P. A course in phonetics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.

_________. Interactions between the native and second-language phonetic systems. In: BURMEISTER, P.; PISKE, T.; ROHDE, A. (Eds.). An integrated view of language development: Papers in honor of Henning Wode, v. 40, p. 217-243. Trier, Germany: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2002.

JOHNSON, J.S.; NEWPORT, E.L. "Critical period effects in second language learning: the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language". Cognitive Psychology, v.1, p.60-99, 1989.

LENNEBERG, E.H. Biological Foundations of Language. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1967.

MACKAIN, K. S.; BEST, C. T.; STRANGE, W. Categorical perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, v.2, p.369-390, 1981.

MOON, S. J.; LINDBLOM, B. Interaction between duration, context, and speaking style in English stressed vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, v. 96, p.40-55,1994.

RHODES, R. A. Flapping in American English. In: DRESSLER, W. U.; PRINZHORN, M.; RENNISON, J. (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Phonology Meeting, p.271-232. Turin: Rosenberg and Sellier, 1992.

SCHÜPPERT, A.; GOOSKENS, C. The influence of extra-linguistic factors on mutual

intelligibility: some preliminary results from Danish and Swedish pre-schoolers, Proceedings of Methods XIII Papers from the Thirteenth International Conference on

Methods in Dialectology 2008.

SELIGER, H.; KRASHEN, S.; LADEFOGED, P. Maturational constraints in the acquisition of a native-like accent in second language learning. Language Sciences, n. 36, p. 20-22, 1975.

TATHAM, M.; MORTON, K. A guide to speech production and perception. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011.

TSUKADA, K. et al. A developmental study of English vowel production and perception by native Korean adults and children. Journal of Phonetics, v. 3, p.263-290, 2005.

‘t HART, J.; COLLIER, R.; COHEN, A. A perceptual study of intonation: An experimental phonetic approach to speech melody. Cambridge: CUP, 1990.


  • Não há apontamentos.

ISSN 2526-4478 - Qualis "B3" (2017/2018)